Monthly Archives: October 2016

How 3D Laser Printers Will Change Our Lives Completely

Lately we are seeing an explosion of a real mania for the 3D Laser Printer.

People write about them in the newspapers, talk about them on television, organize seminars and exhibitions dedicated to the subject, they publish books and at least on the web are increasing dramatically the resources available.

Although it is now after 30 years since their first introduction, the 3D laser printers are still a novelty.

How a 3D Laser Printer works

The 3D laser printers are capable of reproducing a three-dimensional object from a digital file and from any type of material: from plastic to metal, even to human cells. With this background, the use of this type of technology can range from the health sector, to fashion, to the automotive, building, and much more with the possibility of endless applications.

The process is simple: from one electronic drawing file or ‘blueprint’, the 3D Laser Printer transforms the digital information into a physical object staring successive layers of material until the entire object is ready.

So far the process seems simple, but the real magic happens when he joins the 3D printer with digital technologies of the Internet of Things. The result is an explosion of technological and social innovation. The advantage of being able to play electronic circuits or recognize materials similar to each other, but with different properties in a short time, greatly speed the implementation times of the objects and give a boost to this sector.

What are the most innovative sectors for the 3D Laser Printers?

Currently we already carry fashion accessories, games and small items by using 3D Laser printers, but by 2020, we will be able to create houses and internal organs in 3D.

The most investments and progress in this type of technology are developing in these fields:

1. Reconstructive surgery 3D
The ability to play back entire human organs is one of the most important medical revolutions of our times. The progress in this field are awesome and will eliminate the long times and lists of transplant. Recently in Russia they build the first thyroid tested on mice, by using a 3D laser printer. Considering the large amount of diseases linked to this organ, we can imagine the positive implications of this project on human beings. And this is just one example…

2. Building Industry 3D
With the 3D laser printers technology will be possible the digital construction of buildings. In Dubai a building and his relative mobile will be built printing layer by layer the building with a mixture of reinforced concrete, plaster, and plastic. To carry out the project will use a 3-D printer about 7 meters high.

3. Mechanic industry 3D
In the world of four-wheel drive prototypes are being realized by using 3D Laser Printers. This possibility would give several advantages to the sector speeding up the production process and reducing costs related to the preparation of complex systems. An example is the Blade project: a supercar made entirely with 3D printers. Another example is the new Jetpack: a rocket system, made entirely in 3D, that allows man to fly and land as a helicopter. This was conceived by Martin Aircraft and used for the latest film 007.

What are the advantages and the challenges ahead in the world of 3D laser printers?

Undoubtedly the ability to exactly reproduce any object in 3D leads to a number of indisputable advantages:

1. Reduction of the time period of the objects
Although currently the 3D machines employ from several hours to several days to create even just a piece; the realization times are still amazing if compared with those of humans, especially in the case of reproductions of buildings or biomaterials.
2. Labor cost reduction.
3. Reduction of hazardous waste in the building sector.

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Fundamentals of Digital Signal Processing

To keep the levels constant you’ve done everything you can think of. You’ve tried fixing the amplifier, and placed speakers in strategic positions. However, you still couldn’t reduce the eco. You can hear background noise and feedback. To combat these sound quality issues there is a simple solution – DSP.

We take a look at some of the fundamentals of Digital Signal Processing.

What is DSP?

Digital Signal Processors (DSP) take real-world signals like audio, video, voice, temperature, position or pressures that are digitized and then accurately manoeuvre them. It is designed for performing mathematical functions like subtract, add, divide and multiply very quickly.

How they work

Signals from real world sources are converted by Digital Signal Processing into digital data that can then be analyzed. The signals will be usually in analog form. Study is performed in digital form because when we reduce a signal to numbers its mechanism can be manipulated in more detail than when they are from real world sources.

The digital data can be converted into an analog signal with enhanced quality when the DSP has completed its work. A DSP can intensify frequencies, sort noise from a signal, and hold back others.

Types of Audio Signal Processors

Signal processors can be single- or multi-functional, digital or analog, or incorporated with other components in a sound system. Most were unconnected devices, but became multi-functional over time with digital signal processors integrating a wide range of functions at a fraction of the cost of individual processors.

The problem-solving features in DSPs today are Gain Control and Volume, Equalization, Filters, Compressors, Dynamics Processor, Expanders and Noise Gates, Limiters, Delay, Speech Leveller, Gated Automatic Mixers, Automatic Microphone Mixers, and Feedback Reducers.

Although you can find it everywhere it is an extremely refined chip technology. DSP chips are used in fax machines, sound cards, modems, high-capacity hard disks, cellular phones, and digital TVs. In 65% of the world’s digital cellular phones, DSPs are used as the engine. This number will only increase with the increase in wireless applications. Digital signal processing is used in many fields including music processing, sonar, biomedicine, radar, speech, and seismology, communications and imaging.

What DSP Can Do

You need to consider some of the most common problems you face in sound reinforcement to determine whether DSP can help your sound system. The DSP tools can remedy many problems if you have reasonably good room acoustics. If you have poor tone quality by using graphic equalizer, a DSP tool, you can rectify the problem. Similarly, DSP tools like Downward Expander, Delay, Compressor, and Automatic Mixer can rectify problems like unwanted noise, frequency response problems, sound source too loud, and feedback, respectively.

What DSP Can’t Do

Adding DSP to your system isn’t an alternative for subsequent conventional sound support rules. For instance, audio processing will not prevent echo. DSP has no effect once sound energy is released by the loudspeaker. The problem will only become worse if you raise the level of the sound system.

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8 Things You Need To Do To Record Good Audio (Apart From Using Monitoring Speakers)

Monitoring speakers are necessary when recording audio, especially if you want to achieve great results. However, studio speakers can’t do the job by themselves, so if you already have a pair of high quality studio monitoring speakers yet are still making crappy audio, then maybe you’re doing a few things wrong. Here are 8 things you can do to achieve the results you want:

Record with good-sounding instruments
Before you start recording, you need to make sure that none of the instruments are faulty or out of tune. If an instrument needs new strings or heads, replace and tune it before the session. Old guitar strings also sound bad, so you might want to restring your guitars as well.

Avoid recording your guitar with reverb
You should only record your guitar with reverb if it’s absolutely necessary and if you’re 100% sure that you’re not going to change it during mixdown. Otherwise, you should record it dry, especially if you don’t really think it’ll fit with the arrangement. If the guitarist can’t play without reverb, you can make up for it by adding some to his headphones from your software.

Avoid recording in the red
Digital clipping makes a recording sound bad, and once you do that you can no longer go back and fix it. This is why you should avoid recording in the red as much as possible. You can just record at a lower volume, and just raise the volume in your mix. Again, you can’t remove clipping, so you might as well just prevent it from happening.

Use the right microphone(s)
Not using the right microphone can result in an awful vocal track, so make sure you are actually using the right one. Condenser microphones are what you’d normally see in studios, and probably what you should be using. Dynamic microphones work for some vocals and styles, but obviously not everything. Compare the two and use the one that fits your recording needs.

Record with good-quality cables
If you want a high-quality recording, it’s ideal to invest in high-quality equipment. Cables do matter even though they may not matter as much as the microphone you’re using or the kind of pre-amp you have. They still have a say in the overall sound of the record, so don’t go cheap.

Take your time
Rushing is often a bad thing, and this also applies to recording audio. While some artists may work under pressure, the majority generally don’t. Don’t expect a vocalist to be able to produce all the vocal tracks to an album in just a short time. Perfection takes time.

Be in the correct position
A good-sounding room and some acoustic treatment are definitely necessary for recording a great audio, but so does the position of the microphone. You can’t just stand in the middle of your bedroom and sing into the microphone you’re holding and still expect to record a good audio. Not all positions are ideal for achieving a great vocal performance, so determine where you should properly position yourself in the room before you start recording. The position of your monitoring speakers also matter, as they will sound different depending on where they are in the room.

Record at 24 bits instead of 16
Now that we have 24 bits, it doesn’t really make sense to record at 16 bits anymore, unless your computer is really slow. It gives you more range of possible volumes in your files and you won’t have to worry about recording into the red. Plus, if you really need it to be 16 bits, you can always convert it to 16 from 24.

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Lithium-Ion Battery Pack

Batteries today are omnipresent today that they are invisible to us. Running in cars, digital cameras, drones, bulbs, mechanical tools, inverters, ships, trains, airplanes, windmills and even in satellites. The basic science behind the battery is chemical energy converting to electrical energy containing three main components: Anode, Cathode, and Electrolyte. The revolution in the battery over the years are through several stages of chemical combinations and implementations. Starting from Voltaic Pile to Daniell Cell, then from Lead-Acid to Nickel Cadmium battery, further evolving to Alkaline Battery, Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH) and then finally to Lithium-ion battery. These are available in all shapes and sizes as per the need along with its possibly packed power capacity.

Working: The Lithium-ion battery pack consist of graphite, oxygen, metal, and of course lithium, which runs in a cycle of discharging and charging. While producing energy, the lithium moves back to the positive cathode across the electrolyte, and while charging, the ions move to the positive anode. This cycle repeats over the course of time and degrades the potency of the ions in providing the electric charge. The lithium-ion has 250Wh/kg (Watt-hours per kilogram) of energy while NiMH has mere 90Wh/kg. This is a vast difference for a small, portable and noiseless rechargeable battery.

Concern Parameters: The 10 parameters that a Lithium-ion battery pack’s development covers are high specific energy, specific power, affordable cost, longer life, better safety, wide temperature operating range, non-toxic, fast charging, lower self-discharge and longer shelf life. In the early stages, the cost of a Li-ion battery was $3000 per kWh, while Lead-acid battery cost $150 per kWh. But over the years, due to multiple benefits of Li-ion battery pack, being 150Wh/kg more than the NiMH, the cost is dramatically falling costing now $150 to $240 per kWh. Tesla’s goal is to reach $100 per kWh on lithium-ion battery packs for the cars.

NEW ERA: In 2005, there was a total of around $4900mil in the sales of lithium-ion batteries while in 2015 it is spiked to $15200mil wherein $4800mil is in automotive alone. It is expected to reach 10% on the total number of cars on the road to be battery EVs by 2020 from 0.3% today and to 35% by 2035. There is an even higher growth rate in China, Europe, and Japan when compared to the US. Statistically consuming 1900TWh for Li-ion battery pack by 2035, which is equivalent to power the whole of US for 160days.

FUTURE: There is still a lot to develop the battery technology as over the years we haven’t come up with anything further than lithium-ion battery packs configured in parallel or series to deliver the desired voltage, power density, and capacity. We sure have changed the contents and the proportion of the combination of raw materials to enhance the capabilities, but there is still a lot of work that has to be put into the battery technology. The targets are to reach over 700Wh/kg to that of 400Wh/kg we are on today. By 2020, 75% of batteries are expected to contain cobalt, in some capacity at least along with better anodes and enhancing electrolytes.

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